N.M. Andersen, T. Cognet, P.A. Kinetics and Reaction Engineering of Levulinic Acid Production from Aqueous Glucose Solutions. The first reaction was performed using 12 mol/L H2SO4, at 30 ºC for 60 min, and the second reaction was performed using the classic method (0.41 mol/L H2SO4, at 121 ºC for 60 min), and using modified conditions to evaluate different reaction times (15 min to 90 min) and H2SO4 concentrations (0.41 mol/L to 6.15 mol/L). Mixing and temperature effects on the kinetics of alkali metal catalyzed, ionic liquid based batch conversion of cellulose to fuel products. 2013). DOI: 10.15376/biores.10.2.3005.3016, Dawson, L., and Boopathy, R. (2008). Domenico Licursi, Claudia Antonetti, Rudy Parton, Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti. Extremely low sulfuric acid catalyst system for synthesis of methyl levulinate from glucose. The models contained the following regression terms: coefficients for the main effects, coefficients for quadratic main effects, and coefficients for factor interaction effects. Levulinic Acid from Biomass: Synthesis and Applications. Defa Meng, Gang Li, Zhihua Liu, Fang Yang. K. Tominaga, K. Nemoto, Y. Kamimura, A. Yamada, Y. Yamamoto, K. Sato. 2013; Dong et al. Sarkanen, C.H. where ASL is the acid-soluble lignin content (%), B is the absorbance read at 215 nm wavelength in the hydrolysates (%), and C is the absorbance read at 280 nm wavelength in the hydrolysates (%). © Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht 1987, Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3663-8_10. These reactions are summarized in Fig. Amin Osatiashtiani, Adam F Lee, Karen Wilson. High yield production of levulinic acid by catalytic partial oxidation of cellulose in aqueous media. Bond. The acid-soluble lignin (ASL) content was measured in the hydrolysates using ultraviolet spectroscopy (Cary 50 Probe, Varian, Mulgrave, VIC, Australia) at 215 nm and 280 nm, and was calculated according to Eq. Wang, P., Fu, Y., Shao, Z., Zhang, F., and Qin, M. (2016). The sugar content quantified in eucalyptus decreased as the acid concentration and/or reaction time in the second hydrolysis increased. Following the extractions, the sawdust was washed with hot water and dried at room temperature (23 ºC ± 1 ºC and 50% ± 2% relative humidity). Production and catalytic transformation of levulinic acid: A platform for speciality chemicals and fuels. Reactivity studies in water on the acid-catalysed dehydration of psicose compared to other ketohexoses into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Bioeng. Aristide Giuliano, Massimo Poletto, Diego Barletta. Conversion of biomass platform molecules into fuel additives and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. 2011; Kumar et al. This result showed that the quantifiable amounts of Klason and soluble lignin were more sensitive to a variation in the acid concentration than to a variation in the reaction time during the acid hydrolysis. The results for the glucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and arabinose contents, along with the total sugar content and lignin + sugars content for the different conditions of acid hydrolysis are shown in the Supplementary Data (Table S4). Tsang, Yong Sik Ok, Chi-Hwa Wang. It is good to keep in mind that a catalyst is a substance that lowers the activation energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place. For example, in the conversion of cellulose or starch to glucose. Table 1. Acid hydrolysis, particularly two-stage sulfuric acid hydrolysis, is widely used to treat lignocellulosic materials to obtain sugars [23–27]. Ludwig (eds. Production of Levulinic Acid and Furfural by Microwave-Assisted Hydrolysis from Model Compounds: Effect of Temperature, Acid Concentration and Reaction Time. Ilona van Zandvoort, Yuehu Wang, Carolus B. Rasrendra, Ernst R. H. van Eck, Pieter C. A. Bruijnincx, Hero J. Heeres, Bert M. Weckhuysen. Drew J. Braden, Carlos A. Henao, Jacob Heltzel, Christos C. Maravelias, James A. Dumesic. Biotech. Nick Sweygers, Raf Dewil, Lise Appels. Selectivity Control in Catalytic Reductive Amination of Furfural to Furfurylamine on Supported Catalysts. All rights reserved. Both the titration curves displayed only 2 equivalence points instead of the expected 3 because the third equivalence point usually gets obscured as Ka3 is close to Kw, the water dissociation constant. 125, 175-188. 1721-1728, Zhou, S., Weimer, P. J., Hatfield, R. D., Runge, T. M., and Digman, M. (2014). Yu, Daniel C.W. (The furfural can be measured colorimetrically with addition of suitable reagents, and this was an important method for determination of pentoses and pentosans in the older literature.) Green process for production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from carbohydrates with high purity in deep eutectic solvents. A mass spectrometric study of the acid-catalysed d-fructose dehydration in the gas phase. Consequently, approximately 97.5% of xylose and 100% of arabinose were degraded using 4.10 mol/L H2SO4 in acid hydrolysis. Selective and recyclable depolymerization of cellulose to levulinic acid catalyzed by acidic ionic liquid. Janssen, H.J. Effects of water in the heterogeneous catalytic valorization of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone and its derivatives. The Preparation of Levulinic Acid by Acid-catalyzed Hydrolysis of Bamboo Shoot Shell in the Presence of Acidic Ionic Liquid Using the Box-Behnken Design. Comparison of two low‐hazard organic solvents as individual and cosolvents for the fabrication of polysulfone membranes. The influence of the concentration of sulphuric acid and the process temperature on the efficiency of the depolymerization reaction is shown in Tables 5.2 and 5.3. via The classic method involves two sequential hydrolyses. Polyphenol oxidase is an almost ubiquitous in angiosper... Let us write or edit the lab report on your topic. Kai Yan, Cody Jarvis, Jing Gu, Yong Yan. Efficient, Chemical-Catalytic Approach to the Production of 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid by Oxidation of Biomass-Derived Levulinic Acid With Hydrogen Peroxide. Elias Martinez-Hernandez, Jhuma Sadhukhan. The monosaccharides then undergo decomposition reactions. Selective radical depolymerization of cellulose to glucose induced by high frequency ultrasound. Sandra Rivas, Anna María Raspolli-Galletti, Claudia Antonetti, Valentín Santos, Juan Carlos Parajó. This an important tool for evaluating a firm’s credibility. Results of Klason Lignin, Acid-soluble Lignin, and Total Lignin for Sugarcane Bagasse Treated under Different Acid Hydrolysis Conditions, Table S3. 2. Huy Quang Lê, Yibo Ma, Marc Borrega, Herbert Sixta. Lund. 2 “Effect of HCl on starch structure and properties of starch-based wood adhesives,” BioResources 11(1), 1721-1728. Conditions for the Second Hydrolysis. @C as a highly stable catalyst for hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone. The acid hydrolysis takes place over a period of time. : Comparison of the Economics of Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Newsprint. The hydrolysis was performed in a water bath at 30 ºC for 60 min, with frequent stirring using a glass rod (solid/liquid ratio of 100:1 mg/mL). K. Dussan, B. Girisuta, D. Haverty, J.J. Leahy, M.H.B. After the reaction, the penicillin flask was opened, and the products of the hydrolysis were filtered in a sintered-glass crucible with hot water. Aqueous-Phase Catalytic Processing in Biomass Valorization to H2 and Liquid Fuels. 2013). 49(4), 258-262. Effective Cleavage of β-1,4-Glycosidic Bond by Functional Micelle with l-Histidine Residue. Acid hydrolysis of wheat flour (particle size, 4 μm) was carried out in a batch reactor between 75-95°C at varying acid concentrations (pH 2-5). Kinetic study of levulinic acid production from corn stalk at mild temperature using FeCl 3 as catalyst. Akio Yamamoto, Anti Rohumaa, Eero Kontturi, Mark Hughes, Tapani Vuorinen. To describe this phenomenon, experts and media began to use the term “environmental crisis” (Mangun and Henning xii). A high surface area mesoporous γ-Al2O3 with tailoring texture by glucose template for ethanol dehydration to ethylene. Bond, James A. Dumesic. Catalytic Transformations of Biomass-Derived Materials into Value-Added Chemicals. Hu Li, Zhen Fang, Richard L. Smith, Song Yang. Jun-Yi Chen, Zi-Long Xiang, Feng Yu, Bert F. Sels, Yu Fu, Ting Sun, Mario Smet, Wim Dehaen. 3. The total lignin value (Klason lignin + acid-soluble lignin) represented under the dashed line indicates that the hydrolysis of lignin occurred to a greater extent than the formation of pseudo-lignin. 110(3), 737-753. The acid hydrolysis product is glucose. Ibim defines glycogen as branched polysaccharides stored in the liver or muscle cells of animals after ingestion of food excess in starch content. Determination of lignin content in eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse, and sugarcane straw. Robert-Jan van Putten, Jan C. van der Waal, Martin Harmse, Henk H. van de Bovenkamp, Ed de Jong, Hero J. Heeres. Solid acid catalyzed glucose conversion to ethyl levulinate. Although in the present study the composition of polysaccharides degradation products was not assessed, interesting results were observed for sugars content. Continuous synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from glucose using a combination of AlCl3 and HCl as catalyst in a biphasic slug flow capillary microreactor. Carlos Ricardo Soccol, ... Ashok Pandey, in Biofuels, 2011. Combined Effects of Ionic Liquid and Tungsten–Halogen Radiation on Heterogeneous Hydrolysis Kinetics of Waste Papaya Epidermis for Production of Total Reducing Sugar. 2016). It is the main energy supplier in the body during exercise when oxygen consumption is low (Jensen et al., 12). 2015). Werner Bonrath, Anna Maria Cornelia Francisca Castelijns, Johannes Gerardus de Vries, Rudolf Philippus Maria Guit, Jan Schütz, Natascha Sereinig, Henricus Wilhelmus Leonardus Marie Vaessen. , Harun Sarip, Mohd Azemi Mohd Noor, Karim Allaf. Shake occasionally. There are several methods available to convert vegetable cellulose-containing biomass into raw materials for fermentation processes. EG is recovered from the final filtrate by extraction using organic solvents, e.g., trichloroethylene. Exploring and exploiting different catalytic systems for the direct conversion of cellulose into levulinic acid. Not logged in Identify all possible acidic and basic species. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. Paul Körner, Dennis Jung, Andrea Kruse. 2 Let us consider some examples of acid hydrolysis. Wallis, A. F. A., Wearne, R. H., and Wright, P. J. A recent study demonstrated that polysaccharide degradation/condensation reaction products with low molecular weight were involved in the formation of pseudo-extractives in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis). Cascade catalytic transfer hydrogenation–cyclization of ethyl levulinate to γ-valerolactone with Al–Zr mixed oxides. Levulinic acid hydrodeoxygenation, decarboxylation and oligmerization over NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst to bio-based value-added chemicals: Modelling of mass transfer, thermodynamics and micro-kinetics. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose into Levulinic Acid by a Sulfonated Chloromethyl Polystyrene Solid Acid Catalyst. Acidic processing of hemicellulosic saccharides from pine wood: Product distribution and kinetic modeling. The classic method (0.41 mol/L H2SO4 and 60 min in second hydrolysis) recovered 89.7% of the total lignin and sugar contents in eucalyptus.