Examples of this cheese are Cambozola, Saint-Agur, and Blue Castello. However, very positive results have been obtained for the development of aroma compounds and the typical Blue cheese note in model systems combining Y. lipolytica and P. roqueforti (Gkatzionis et al., 2013, 2014; Price et al., 2014). It's believed that at one point a half-eaten loaf of bread was left behind in a cave by a cheesemaker in Roquefort, France, and, upon his return, he discovered that the mold covering the bread had transformed the cheese into blue cheese. There is a blue cheese vinaigrette that consists of salad oil, blue cheese, vinegar, and sometimes seasonings. Danablu is a Danish cow's milk blue cheese produced on the island of Funen. Blue cheese is a good source of protein, calcium, and phosphorous. The cheese is left to age for 60 to 90 days. Double-cream blue cheese is a category unto itself, with a later arrival on the blue cheese timeline in the late 20th century. Blue-veined cheeses mainly are made from the milk of cows, ewes, and buffalo. Proteolysis and lipolysis are enhanced as compared to other cheeses, and flavor compounds are formed from amino acid catabolism as well as fat breakdown. Butyric (C4) and caproic (C6) acids and 2-heptanone are the major compounds responsible for the strong, piquant flavor of Blue cheeses. In the microbial flora of blue cheeses, mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. Gorgonzola is an Italian cheese produced from milk from cows that graze in the pastures of Lombardy and Piedmont. Piercing of curds is done either in caves or in dairies no more than 2 days before curds are transferred to caves. Penicillium roqueforti is particularly well adapted to the conditions encountered during blue cheese manufacture including low oxygen levels and temperatures. There are two major objectives in using yeasts as adjunct cultures in the production of Blue cheese: (1) to secure the microenvironment by assimilating residual carbohydrates and organic acids, thereby promoting the growth of desired cultures and inhibiting the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, and (2) to contribute directly to the desired cheese quality by the enzymatic activity and by stimulating P. roqueforti. So although the array may be suitable as a fast screening method to classify or identify blue cheeses, the array response may vary with time, and this factor should be controlled to avoid misclassification. bulgaricus). As P. roqueforti requires O2 for growth, the texture of Blue cheese must be open to allow the fungal spores and hyphae to germinate and grow. As can be seen on Table 1.6, as more information was incorporated, the prediction ability improved from 67% at 30 min to 100% at 5.5 h and 8.5 h. This perfect prediction at 5.5 h confirms the capacity of the chromogenic array to classify blue cheeses and opens up the use of optoelectronic noses as a real, easy-to-use, and rapid classification tool for cheeses. Advances in molecular genetics and metabolite biosynthesis allow us to understand how they are synthesized and secreted by P. roqueforti. It has a "melt-in-your-mouth texture like butter. Blue cheese, any of several cheeses marbled with bluish or greenish veins of mold. Blue cheeses may be soft and creamy or crumbly in texture, with a characteristically sharp, piquant flavour. The Spruce Eats uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. The type of milk that is used (cow's, sheep's, or goat's), what the animals were eating before they were milked, and the slightly different cheesemaking techniques used by each cheesemaker ensure that every blue cheese around the world will have its own distinct flavor. It was reported that a reverse development between lactococci and lactobacilli are present; i.e., the number of lactococci decrease markedly on the surface layer, while lactobacilli increase and began to dominate as ripening proceeded. Cheddar was tested as control (a nonblue cheese). lactis, L. lactis subsp. E. Coton, ... M. Coton, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2020. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The possibility of using high-quality P. roqueforti strains unable to produce toxic secondary metabolites in cheese is of great interest. The mold, during the three to six months of ripening, grows both in small, irregular, natural openings in the cheese and in machine-made perforations. Percentage of Samples Correctly Classified by the PLS-DA Model Using Five Classes (Cheddar, Roquefort, Blue Stilton, Blue Cheese With Leaves, and Blue Cheese Spread): Time Indicates That Color Data up to the Time Spent in the PLS-DA Model. The counts for enterococci and micrococci increase towards the end of ripening the cheese core. N. Desmasures, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), 2014. It was demonstrated that Y. lipolytica possesses some of the essential properties for use as an adjunct culture: (1) ability to grow and compete with other naturally occurring yeasts, such as D. hansenii and S. cerevisiae, even though it assimilates only galactose and lactate; (2) compatibility with, and possible stimulation of LAB when coinoculated; and (3) remarkable lipolytic and proteolytic activities. The objective was to design an optoelectronic nose that was as simple as possible that could be used by consumers and retailers. The technological characteristics of the LAB of the starter culture and the P. roqueforti culture have significant effects on the quality of the cheese. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Blue cheese, any of several cheeses marbled with bluish or greenish veins of mold. Blue cheese can also be wrapped and frozen in an airtight container or a zip-close bag for up to three months and defrosted in the refrigerator. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Roquefort, Gorgonzola, Stilton, Danablu, Cabrales and Bleu d'Auvergne are internationally recognized members of this group. Whisk it into creamy sauces, dressings, and soups as a flavor enhancer or sprinkle it over salads. The proteolytic activity of the strain of P. roqueforti used is extremely important for texture development, whereas the lipolytic activity determines the flavor profile. The optoelectronic array for the analysis of the origin of blue cheeses was composed by five sensing materials (Table 1.1). Several different varieties of Blue cheese have been developed over time, each with its own characteristics involving milk of different animals and different manufacturing methods. Blue cheese is in fact a general classification of cheeses–from cow, sheep or goat milk–that have cultures of the mold Penicillium in them. Several different varieties of Blue cheese have been developed over time, each with its own characteristics involving milk of different animals and different manufacturing methods. Well-known blue cheeses in addition to those mentioned above include Bleu de Bresse and Bleu d’Auvergne (France), Danablu (Denmark), Blue Cheshire (England), and several produced in the United States. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It has a creamy and smooth texture and a slightly sharp and salty flavor, which is similar to Roquefort but milder. From: Nanoencapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients, 2017, J.F. The principal components analysis (PCA) score plot of the diverse cheeses using the data obtained 0.5 h after packaging. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. and Pishia spp. Blue cheese varieties (Chapter 37) are characterized by blue/green veins throughout the cheese caused by the growth of P. roqueforti. Y. lipolytica is relatively salt tolerant, and the potential role as an adjunct culture in Blue cheese is mainly linked with lipolysis and aroma formation, but it may also contribute to proteolysis (Gkatzionis et al., 2013; van den Tempel and Jakobsen, 2000). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The body of a blue-veined cheese is white or yellowish with blue-green channels and veins after the growth and sporulation of the mould within the piercing channels and over cavities of the cheese. Milk is matured using a mesophilic starter and heated at renneting temperature (28–34 °C). Store opened blue cheese, wrapped in foil or parchment or waxed paper, in the refrigerator for up to three weeks. Blue cheeses have a soft texture and a strong flavor dominated by n-methyl ketones which are produced by the mold from fatty acids.

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