if you remove the "and" you will be left with two complete sentences), or if you're using it as an Oxford comma. He went to London for two weeks, and, just like him, he stayed at an expensive hotel. However, the final comma—the one that comes before the and—is optional. Furthermore, we will buy twenty copies of your new book. But fear not! However, she expects to finish her novel by summer. Be especially careful with long or complex subjects: Don’t separate two nouns that appear together as a compound subject or compound object. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are … There was no chance of changing our flight, so we had to stay for two more days. Hello, Chester. When you want to join two independent clauses, you need a conjunction or a semicolon. That man is a self-righteous, annoying, pompous idiot. Either the blue shirt, or the red sweater will look good with your jeans. Please select your preference. Correct, My sister is leaving for Canada tomorrow, but she will be back in three weeks. There are two basic and simple rules to follow for the use of a comma before but. Complete  Very expensive. It is because there is no subject with a verb in the second clause. Complete  My local café was closed. Absolutely correct, Darlene. You have been successfully subscribed to the Grammarly blog. Copyright © 2020 Just Publishing Advice - All Rights Reserved. Correct, We really wanted to go to Spain for our holiday, but the hotels are too expensive in summer. This mistake is most common when the predicate is made up of long verb phrases. We were out of milk; I went to the store. Disclaimer: This site generates income via advertising, paid links, affiliate links, sponsored articles and book promotion. The scintillating, sweet aroma of cinnamon buns filled the kitchen. The weather, I was happy to see, was beginning to clear. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. “If you knew what was good for you, you’d sit down and finish that essay right now,” my roommate said. *. Imagine, for a moment, that you have just finished doing three chores. A comma normally follows participial phrases that introduce a sentence: When an adverbial phrase begins a sentence, it’s often followed by a comma but it doesn’t have to be, especially if it’s short. Cleo will wear a sparkly red blazer, and high heels. Navigating through snow, sleet, wind, and darkness, is a miserable way to travel. Trees such as pine and spruce do not drop their needles in the winter. As a rule of thumb, if the phrase is longer than about four words, use the comma. After opening the new cookie tin (and eating several of the cookies,) Chester had a hard time replacing the lid. Incorrect, I wanted to go out for breakfast, but my local café was closed. You get a compound predicate when the subject of a sentence is doing more than one thing. Use a comma after the conjunction when it is followed by an interruption. Use a comma before the word but if it is joining two independent clauses: If but is not joining two independent clauses, leave the comma out. There is an exception to the rule when you’re using dialogue right? I am always reminded of this quote when I think about using commas. Complete, He left home early, but he forgot to take an umbrella. It’s not easy, but, well, you know how it is. The adorable little boy was eating ice cream. This comma is called the serial comma or the Oxford comma. Correct, I meant to buy some bread, but I forgot to stop off at the bakery. If the second part of a sentence is a dependent clause, there is no comma before but. Your email address will not be published. Therefore, we will be an active promoter of your new novel. In 1816 life was very different. When you understand the rules, you can always make the correct decision. Many trade books do use it. I meant to buy tickets for Cleo’s show but ran out of time. You can try for a free upgrade, or you can pay extra to be sure you get it. “I spent all morning putting in a comma and all afternoon taking it out.” – Oscar Wilde. Now you know the answer. These willow trees are beautiful, aren’t they? However, the final comma—the one that comes before the and —is optional. Incorrect, The restaurant was fantastic but very expensive. Correct, The rest of the sentence was easy to write but with no comma. One way to tell whether the adjectives are coordinate is to try switching the order of them. In this case, both clauses will have a subject and a verb. Writing, grammar, and communication tips for your inbox. A restrictive clause adds necessary information about something you have mentioned in a sentence. Cleo and her band will be playing at Dockside Diner next Friday. Moreover, we would like to write a review for our newspaper. Identifying it as the restaurant recommended by Chester doesn’t narrow it down any further. You didn’t actually write a 600-page vampire romance novel, did you? The clause “which Chester recommended” is nonrestrictive because “Posey’s Cafe” is already specific. Whether or not you use the serial comma is a style choice. 2. An appositive is a word or phrase that refers to the same thing as another noun in the same sentence. A bouquet of flowers may be created using more than one type of flower. It is grammatically correct to use a comma before "and" (and other coordinating conjunctions such as "but", "or", "nor") only when it splits two independent clauses (i.e. And yes, I just did a full check, and I got all green lights for my comma usage. You can also use a comma with a shorter phrase when you want to emphasize it or add a pause for literary effect. Suddenly, an angry black cat sprang from the shadows. “We’re going down to the soup kitchen to help serve dinner,” her mother called. The ones for cumulative and coordinate adjectives can be a bit tricky. You can, however, proceed with the corrections. Typically, commas are unnecessary with correlative conjunctions. Correct. Hardcover books are more expensive than paperback books. All you need to do to make sure you are correct is to check if your sentence is joining two independent clauses. This comma is called the serial comma or the Oxford comma. In American English, commas always go before closing quotation marks. (The comma before the and in a list of three or more items is optional. But, if there is a chance of misreading the sentence, use the comma: Don’t use a comma before “than” when you’re making a comparison. I have made the correction edit. “But, why not?” Johnny looked at his mom. You insert a comma before but when the two halves of your sentence can stand alone. I wanted to go out for breakfast. Many newspapers do not use it. https://quoteinvestigator.com/2015/10/25/comma/. I dedicate this award to my parents, Jane Austen, and Albert Einstein. You have mastered the comma rule with but. A, bouquet of flowers may be created using more than one type of flower. That will teach me for relying on my memory and not checking. Yes, there are some complicated comma rules. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. I told you it was super easy. If you are writing for a British audience, put the comma after the closing quotation mark. The good news about the comma before or after but, Examples of the comma before and, so, yet and or, Examples of the comma after and, so, yet and or.

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