Electrical conductivity in metals is a result of the movement of electrically charged particles. The atoms of metal elements are characterized by the presence of valence electrons, which are electrons in the outer shell of an atom that are free to move about. These alloys have also good resistance to atmosphere corrosion, another desirable property in a resistor. Manganin and constantan are usually used for making wire-wound precision resistance for measuring instruments, shunts for electrical measuring instruments, resistance boxes, standard resistance coils and coils for precision electrical measuring instruments. Annealed copper is used at place where flexibility is required e.g., wiring of buildings, winding wires and electrical machines and transformers. Copper is available in two forms, viz. Mechanical clamping and screwing methods have also been developed. However, it is exposed to aggressive agents, such as water and chlorides, leading to its degradation. This is commonly measured across the opposite faces of a one-meter cube of material and described as an ohm meter (Ω⋅m). Steel is not very often used as a conducting material because of its low electrical conductivity, in spite of the fact that it has higher mechanical properties and low cost. m representing the reinforcement of diameter Ø=12 mm and of length equal to the concrete slab length (900 mm), is placed on the centerline of the slab and at a depth of 30 mm from the concrete surface. In pure zinc/steel couples, such as these, current flows readily (so that zinc corrosion takes place rapidly). To study the influence of reinforcements and estimate the impact of their effect on resistivity measurements on concrete, we model their contribution by finite element numerical analysis. Aluminium occurs in abundance on earth’s surface, it is available in various forms such as oxides, sulphates, silicates, phosphates, etc. Constantan is used in making thermocouples and in field regulators for regulating the generated voltage of a generator. Platinum obtainable in very pure form is used. Steel is not very often used as a conducting material because of its low electrical conductivity, in spite of the fact that it has higher mechanical properties and low cost. Reinforcement has an effect on the apparent resistivity and not on the ‘true’ one. Aluminium is not easily solderable, but fluxed have been devised to make soldering easy. Hence for winding of electrical machines, copper is preferred as compared to aluminium due to higher tensile strength and lower resistivity of copper in comparison with aluminium. This is the case in the most conductive metals, such as silver, gold, and copper. Unconventional Machining Processes: AJM, EBM, LBM & PAM | Manufacturing, Material Properties: Alloying, Heat Treatment, Mechanical Working and Recrystallization, Design of Gating System | Casting | Manufacturing Science, Forming Process: Forming Operations of Materials | Manufacturing Science, Generative Manufacturing Process and its Types | Manufacturing Science. The methodology developed allows a good modeling of the effects of reinforcement. Reinforcement induces a significant decrease in the apparent resistivity values.
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