HVDC transmission may also be selected for other technical benefits. DC grids with multiple voltage-source converters (VSCs) are one of the technical solutions for pooling offshore wind energy and transmitting it to load centers located far away onshore.  The cost of the converters may not be offset by reductions in line construction cost and lower line loss. Donald Beaty et al, "Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers 11th Ed. Machinery to convert between AC and DC power adds a considerable cost in power transmission. This was done at Inga–Shaba HVDC. AC transmission lines can interconnect only synchronized AC networks with the same frequency with limits on the allowable phase difference between the two ends of the line. If one conductor fails, transmission can still continue at reduced capacity. Many circuit diagrams show charge flowing from the positive end toward the negative end; however, this is not accurate and is often done as part of an old convention still used despite its inaccuracy. Skog, J.E., van Asten, H., Worzyk, T., Andersrød, T., Norned – World’s longest power cable, Source works for a prominent UK engineering consultancy but has asked to remain anonymous and is a member of. Development of thyristor valves for HVDC began in the late 1960s. Above a certain break-even distance (about 50 km for submarine cables, and perhaps 600–800 km for overhead cables), the lower cost of the HVDC electrical conductors outweighs the cost of the electronics. Nevertheless, for a long AC overhead transmission line, the current flowing just to charge the line capacitance can be significant, and this reduces the capability of the line to carry useful current to the load at the remote end.  Increasing the transmission voltage on such lines reduces the power loss, but until recently, the interconnectors required to bridge the segments were prohibitively expensive. | Claverton Group, Green Power Superhighways: Building a Path to America's Clean Energy Future, HVDC Transmission Projects | Clean Line Energy Partners, David Strahan "Green Grids" New Scientist 12 March 2009, https://www.siemens.com/press/pool/de/events/2012/energy/2012-07-wismar/factsheet-hvdc-e.pdf, https://www.tdworld.com/overhead-transmission/article/20967567/india-to-build-longest-800kv-uhvdc-transmission-line, China’s Ambitious Plan to Build the World’s Biggest Supergrid, IEEE Spectrum (2019), International Council on Large Electric Systems, World Bank briefing document about HVDC systems, Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (CESI), Windpowerengineering.com article entitled "Report: HVDC converters globally to hit $89.6 billion by 2020" By Paul Dvorak, dated 18. Batteries 2. HVDC conversion equipment at the terminal stations is costly, but the total DC transmission-line costs over long distances are lower than for an AC line of the same distance. The project has designed ratings of ±160 kV/200 MW-100 MW-50 MW and will be used to bring wind power generated on Nanao island into the mainland Guangdong power grid through 32 km of combination of HVDC land cables, sea cables and overhead lines. DC side harmonics and filtering in HVDC transmission systems, Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG (AEG), "Wind Power 'Superhighway' Could Help Transform Panhandle Into U.S. Energy Hub", "Changji-Guquan ±1,100 kV UHV DC Transmission Project Starts Power Transmission", "ABB wins orders of over $300 million for world's first 1,100 kV UHVDC power link in China", ACW's Insulator Info – Book Reference Info – History of Electrical Systems and Cables, https://www.siemens.com/press/en/pressrelease/?press=/en/pressrelease/2017/energymanagement/pr2017080410emen.htm&content, Siemens AG – Ultra HVDC Transmission System, "HVDC Classic reliability and availability", "Design, Modeling and Control of Modular Multilevel Converter based HVDC Systems. Transmission line towers may be designed to carry two conductors, even if only one is used initially for the monopole transmission system. All power electronic converters generate some degree of harmonic distortion on the AC and DC systems to which they are connected, and HVDC converters are no exception. The length of the direct current line is kept as short as possible. An AC arc will "self-extinguish" at one of these zero-crossing points, because there cannot be an arc where there is no potential difference. Each thyristor valve will typically contain tens or hundreds of thyristor levels, each operating at a different (high) potential with respect to earth. Batteries are some of the main sources of direct current (DC), but many other sources also exist such as bridge rectifiers in power supply, solar panels, etc. Direct current (DC or "continuous current") is the flow of electricity in a single direction, from the positive to the negative terminals (potential, poles). Since 1977, new HVDC systems have used only solid-state devices, in most cases thyristors. Direct current (DC or "continuous current") is the flow of electricity in a single direction, from the positive to the negative terminals (potential, poles).  The transmission voltage of ±533 kV was the highest in the world at the time.. Transmission line conductors operating with direct current suffer from neither constraint. Due to the space charge formed around the conductors, an HVDC system may have about half the loss per unit length of a high voltage AC system carrying the same amount of power.
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