The program was confined to grant support for new assistant professors or postdoctoral fellows in eight research-intensive New York City institutions, six of which were academic medical centers. Since 1995, when the survey was conducted, a huge infusion of state funds to life sciences research has been obtained from a new source: state tobacco settle-. SOURCES: Battelle Memorial Institute/SSTI, 1998; Jankowski, 1999; National Science Foundation, 2004. ments (SSTI, 1999b).

Because the muscles are loose, individuals are more prone to accidents. a life changing paralyzing Spinal Cord Injury as a result of a catastrophic accident. States’ total research and development spending for all areas of science and health was approximately $88 million in the mid-1960s. Available: [accessed November 11, 2004]. In recent years the annual congressional appropriations for these grants, which represent funding for the Research and Facilities Improvement Program, has been approximately $110 million to $120 million (U.S. Senate Committee on Appropriations, 2003). Similar benefits were estimated in California and Maryland (California Health Care Institute, 1993; Maryland Department of Economic and Employment Development, 1994). It’s also the place to find UHN media policies and catch up on our news stories, videos, media releases, podcasts and more. The index captures measures in four areas: biopharmaceutical research funding, biopharmaceutical risk capital funding, biopharmaceutical industry human capital and workforce, and biopharmaceutical innovation output (DeVol et al., 2004).

These data suggest that New York State has too few spinal cord injury researchers to accomplish its legislatively mandated mission: to cure spinal cord injuries or their effects. Grants are administered through the Reeve-Irvine Research Center at the University of California at Irvine. An external advisory committee first reviews the proposals and assigns priority scores on the basis of the merit and the appropriateness of the proposal to the program’s goals.

The search was restricted to the term “spinal cord injury,” and the activity was restricted to research projects, specifically those supported by R01 grants. Vehicle accidents are the leading cause, with Falls being the second leading cause.

Several states have developed or contribute funding to extensive research centers, including the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis and the Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center (see below). Christopher Reeve was also a strong advocate. Revenue bonds floated by a state are commonly used to finance the research infrastructure, such as new construction and equipment (Personal communication, M. Skinner, State Science & Technology Institute [SSTI], November 11, 2004). Although the state funds for the project vary from year to year, the programs that receive the funding have flexibility over its use. By applying a small electrical impulse to the nerve or muscle, the desired function can be triggered. The 3 principal investigators located at the Reeve-Irvine Research Center and the 15 research associates on the campus apply for Roman Reed Research Program funds just as other California-based researchers do. The $500,000 was matched by a private donation; and the total, $1 million, was matched again by a novel state program set up by the Kentucky governor, known as Bucks for Brains.4 Over time, $10 million has been raised and has been used to endow five chairs of $2 million each. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction can significantly interfere with one’s everyday life, so setting up a bowel program for spinal cord injury patients is a must. That amount rose to $3 billion in 1995 (Jankowski, 1999). [Online]. While laxatives can help with bowel complications like constipation, individuals can build a tolerance to them and may experience unfavorable side effects. additional research grants from the National Institutes of Health that reap additional jobs and tax revenues (the case studies in this chapter show at least a 200 percent return on investment).

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