people using mobile phones, smart watches, smart TVs, and other devices with small screens, different input modes, etc. Web developers don’t know enough about web accessibility standards (which is complicated by the existence of multiple standards), Web developers lack tools for evaluating their websites, Sometimes content is provided by third parties (like advertisements which may be inherently inaccessible), Evaluating websites for accessibility can be a HUGE undertaking, Web developers aren’t Assistive Technology (AT) experts, Drag and drop website authoring tools often don’t support accessibility, The specifications and guidelines for the accessible web, An extensive (but not absolute) resource list to get you started, Section 508 — specific to the United States, Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 — guidelines for the world wide web, Web Accessibility Initiative — Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) specification — guidelines for web interoperability with assistive technologies, Document Structure: Document Structure HTML tags are things like, Correlation: These tags tell the browser that certain elements are related to each other and must appear in a specific order, such as an. - Katie Cunningham, Accessibility Handbook (O’Reilly) [2]. A side note here: If you are using images for decoration purposes only, you should include them in your CSS, not the HTML (if possible). Access to information and communications technologies, including the Web, is defined as a basic human right in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD). When you use elements for styling reasons this can land you with a website that is almost impossible to navigate using a keyboard. And as many of us know within the a11y community, the benefits of being “accessible” aren’t restricted to those with accessibility needs. Comprehensive evaluation to determine if a website meets all accessibility guidelines takes more effort. Let’s take a look about how that works in practice. Sliders, menu bars, file list views, and more can be built with a combination of JavaScript, CSS, and HTML. When writing HTML the best practice from an accessibility standpoint is to use elements for their intended purpose. When considering the alt text to use for a Gif, consider your context first. Note that when adding a label to a landmark the type of landmark should be considered and not repeated in the label (it will sound broken when read aloud, for example an. A little while back, a friend of mine asked me to review their alt text for some Gifs (Graphics Interchange Format) they had in a draft blog post. Tools. Work with designers and content writers to agree on meanings and then use them consistently. This recent release of guidelines are “backwards compatible”; meaning if you want to meet both WCAG 2.0 and WCAG 2.1, you can just use the 2.1 resources. Please share your ideas, suggestions, or comments via e-mail to the publicly-archived list or via GitHub. These tips are good practice to help you meet Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) requirements. Ensure that alternative text for images is added to all informational and functional images. First published September 2015. Video Introduction to Web Accessibility and W3C Standards (4 minutes). Put more simply, ARIA defines a collection of attributes to help modify incorrect markup and to bridge gaps in HTML to create more accessible experience for those using assistive technology (AT). However, when websites, applications, technologies, or tools are badly designed, they can create barriers that exclude people from using the Web. An accessible website does not rely on the mouse; it makes all functionality available from a keyboard. There are many web users that rely on a keyboard to interact with websites. Often, when I talk to others about why it is important that we DO tackle this problem, I cite a comic that was introduced to me at IBM’s workshop on accessibility at the Grace Hopper Celebration in 2017 (shown below). Most JavaScript libraries offer a library of client-side widgets that mimic the behavior of familiar desktop interfaces. Other best practices include using proper heading structure and providing correct ARIA landmarks or HTML structural elements to make the page easily navigable using a keyboard. The focus of WAI-ARIA is on the semantics of the web, something that assistive technologies rely on heavily in order to make sense of how a website should be navigated. We will cover: Following on from this post I will be writing a series of posts about making more accessible — in which I will walk through a case study of reviewing our blog site and the efforts we are taking to build with accessibility in mind. Whilst it can be seen from this example that some auto-semantics become widely adopted and even expected within a web experience, there are still many that aren’t widely adopted and leave the user unaware of the implied action. The Web is fundamentally designed to work for all people, whatever their hardware, software, language, location, or ability. Web accessibility depends on several components working together, including web technologies, web browsers and other "user agents", authoring tools, and websites.

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